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Voluntary migration1 is migration which takes place on the migrants’ own initiative. Return migration2 or re-migration2 is the term used for the movement of individuals back to their place of origin after they have been absent for some time. The term repatriation3 is also used but has tended to acquire the meaning of a movement sponsored by a public authority, for instance, when there is an exchange of populations or a frontier adjustment.
- 2. re-migration n. — re-migrate v. — re-migrant n., one who re-migrates. The term returnee has also been used.
- 3. repatriation n. — repatriate v., also used as a n. — repatriated adj.
Where large groups of individuals or families decide to migrate (801-1*) together collective migration2 will result; in the absence of concerted action, the movement is referred to as individual migration1; where the number of migrants is very large this may be called mass migration3. The term exodus4 may be used for a sudden mass migration caused by some emergency or catastrophe.
Voluntary migration (810-1) contrasts with forced migration1, in which individuals are compelled by public authorities to move. One example of forced migration is the expulsion2 from their places of abode either of individuals or of whole groups of people. The term evacuation3 is generally reserved for the movement of whole populations in order to safeguard them from some catastrophe, such as earthquakes, floods, operations of war or the like. A refugee4 has usually migrated of his own volition, though there may have been strong pressure on him to migrate because his continued stay in his country of origin may have exposed him to danger of persecution. A displaced person5 is a person who has been moved by a public authority from his place of origin. This move may have taken place as a result of large-scale displacement of population6 or population transfer6, or population exchange7.
- 2. expulsion o. — expel v. — expellee n., one who has been expelled. The term deportation is used for the expulsion of an individual person from his country of residence because his continued residence is considered undesirable by the authorities.
deportation n. — deport v. — deportee n.
- 3. evacuation n. — evacuate v. — evacuee n., a person who has been evacuated.
The process by which immigrants (802-3*) adjust themselves to conditions in the area of destination falls into several categories: naturalization (331-1), the acquisition of legal citizenship; absorption1, the entry into productive economic activity; assimilation3, integration into the social structure on terms of equality; and acculturation2 the adoption of the customs and values of the population in the place of destination (801-4*).
When immigrants (802-3*) from a particular territory do not assimilate in their new country but retain the customs of their place of origin (810-3), they are called a colony1. When the receiving country is already inhabited, this raises problems of coexistence2 between different populations. These may be solved by the fusion3 of the population, i.e., by the disappearance of recognizable differences, or by the integration4 of one of the populations into the other. Segregation5 exists in a territory where two or more populations live but remain separated by barriers imposed by custom or even by the force of law.
- 1. colony n. — colonize v., to found a colony, also used in the sense of settling a new territory — colonist n., member of a colony.
- 2. coexistence n. — coexist v.
- 5. segregation n. — segregate v.
Migration policy1 is one aspect of population policy. Most countries, through their immigration laws2, restrict the admittance of foreign nationals. These Jaws frequently provide for selective immigration3 of persons with certain specified characteristics. Some countries, the United States for example, have established quota systems4 whereby the number of immigrants admitted from each country is fixed in relation to the national origin5 of the receiving country’s inhabitants. Measures designed to influence the redistribution6 of population within a country through internal migration (802-5) are usually more indirect in character.
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