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The expression "population theory" (cf. 101-1) is used with widely differing meaning. In one restricted sense it refers to a systematic treatment of the logical and mathematical foundations of formal demography (102-3). At the other extreme it is sometimes used for a purely speculative treatment of population questions. In the past, studies of interrelations between demographic and other phenomena have necessarily tended to be somewhat speculative. There is now an increased emphasis on more objective interdisciplinary studies dealing with specific relations between the results of demographic investigations and the results obtained by other kinds of scientific inquiry. The theoretical treatment of population was largely centred in the past on the relationship between total population and resources1, i.e., the means available to maintain the population, or production2, the creation of goods and services.
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